Laccaria (possibly proxima)?

Please try to include photos to show all parts of the fungus, eg top, stem, and gills.
Note any smells, and associated trees or plants (eg oak, birch). A spore print can be very useful.
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roy betts
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Re: Laccaria (possibly proxima)?

Post by roy betts » Mon Aug 31, 2015 10:39 am

It's useful to check the basidia, with Laccaria, to see if they are 2 or 4 spored.
2-spored species include pumila and fraterna.
4-spored species are proxima (with ellipsoid spores) and, with globose spores, laccata and bicolor (bicolor has the smaller spores of these two).

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jimmymac2
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Re: Laccaria (possibly proxima)?

Post by jimmymac2 » Mon Aug 31, 2015 10:55 am

How would one check the basidia?
Always keep your eyes open... :shock:

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Re: Laccaria (possibly proxima)?

Post by adampembs » Mon Aug 31, 2015 11:07 am

jimmymac2 wrote:How would one check the basidia?
See my answer here http://fungi.org.uk/viewtopic.php?f=4&t ... 2415#p2415
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roy betts
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Re: Laccaria (possibly proxima)?

Post by roy betts » Mon Aug 31, 2015 11:22 am

Put a single gill on a slide and view the face of the gill under low power (dry that is, do not mount in liquid).
A specimen with 4-spored basidia should look like this image (focus down till you reach the spores; you are looking down onto the tops of the basidia). A 2-spored specimen looks more 'chaotic' but you should be able to identify them with practice. Some species have 3-spored basidia (eg: Coprinus trispora) or mixed, eg: 2 & 4 spored. Sometimes 1-spored basidia occur. This all affects the size range of the spores present (spores from 2-spored basidia generally being larger than 4-spored).
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Basidia 4 spd.a.jpg
4-spored basidia from above

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jimmymac2
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Re: Laccaria (possibly proxima)?

Post by jimmymac2 » Mon Aug 31, 2015 11:34 am

Thanks Roy, I'll try that this afternoon.
Always keep your eyes open... :shock:

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Re: Laccaria (possibly proxima)?

Post by Chris Yeates » Mon Aug 31, 2015 11:46 am

Here are a couple of 2-spored Laccaria species. The first using Roy's technique, which is the one I would recommend when you're starting out (just make sure you don't accidentally run the objective into the gill - check from the side that you're not getting too close; you should be OK with the lowest power objective mind).
Laccaria fraterna.jpg
As Roy says the result can look 'chaotic' but you can see enough pairs here.
With practice you can also count the sterigmata on the basidia in a normal 'wet' mount. Here is another 2-spored Laccaria:
Laccaria tortilis.jpg
You just need to make sure there are only two sterigmata by racking up and down to get a somewhat 3D picture as often only two will be visible at any one time.

Dark-spored species are of course easier using the first method - the relevant shot here was taken with an 'extreme macro' lens (helped by the relatively large spores):
Panaeolus semiovatus.jpg
with these species one can often find developing spores still attached in a normal 'wet' mount, and spotting 'fours' - which is by far the most frequent occurrence - is quite easily done. Just don't make your initial 'squash' to fierce, always worth starting out quite gently.

cheers
Chris
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Re: Laccaria (possibly proxima)?

Post by roy betts » Mon Aug 31, 2015 12:03 pm

Lovely images Chris: mine was shot with a Vivitar compact hand held onto the end of my non-stereo microscope!

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