Entoloma - biting the bullet

Steve
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Fri Aug 19, 2016 12:20 pm

Hi,
This is one we found earlier on in our survey of the Longshaw Estate in the Peak District on 17/9/14. The remarkable thing about it was that it was on a Hairy Wood Ant nest. Longshaw has innumerable nests of this kind, and the ants get all over you when you are surveying in autumn – into your rucksack, and even crawling over your camera as you shoot. However, they usually don’t bite too much. It was interesting that they hadn’t attacked the fungus, and presumably its mycelium was growing well enough. The ants were dormant on this day. We’ve found a number of toadstools on the ant hills, including Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca (False Chanterelle), Collybia fusipes (Spindleshank) and Mycena, as well as the ubiquitous Rhopographis filicinis (Bracken Map).
A large troop of what I identified as Inocybe petiginosa were close by, but this was different. The spores were almost globular, with 5 very rounded angles, 8-18 x 7-8. Basidia were 4-spored, but apart from one hyphal-looking thread I found no gill edge cells of interest.
The toadstool itself was a humble LBM (Little Brown Mushroom), with a cap 2 cm wide, pale mousey grey. The stem was more or less equal, about 1.5 mm wide, with a silvery sheen and a white base. Gills were about 20 in number, plus intermediates.
Of course this is a case of single-mushroom-syndrome and you deserve the headache caused by attempting an ID. But it was an Entoloma, it was on an ant hill, and I haven’t identified it......yet :o
Steve
1 Hairy Wood Ant Ne.jpg
A Hairy Wood Ant nest with Bracken Map fungus (right)
2 Field.jpg
Field photo
3 Field.jpg
Field photo
4 Macro.jpg
Macro photos (scale in mm)
5 Spores x 600 in water.jpg
Spores in water x 600
Last edited by Steve on Mon Dec 19, 2016 3:23 pm, edited 1 time in total.

Steve
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Mon Sep 12, 2016 3:57 pm

Here are some fungi forensics!
We spotted it during the Entoloma Workshop at Longshaw - a great success due to Roy Betts helping two dozen mycologists from the length and breadth of the country to put some names to Entoloma. We found some new species in the list of 20 or so we named.

This is one Roy and I were looking at in what we were informed was a Porpoloma zone, where we all froze at the command of a local waxcap buff! Do not move! Guiltily we held the trampled cap of a brownish mushroom in our hands. It looked a little like Pluteus umbrosus with grey-brown and blackish brown cap colours. The stem we never saw, as we hastily retreated from the zone. This made it rather difficult to use any keys, based on cap and stem colour. However, the very brittle gills are quite astonishing - very thick, smooth-edged, and heavily veined and ridged - rather like Mycena galericulata. They were too thick to mount for microscopy - so I made a squash of the edge. It is surely an Entoloma, with almost isodiametric spores. There was no sign of cheilocystidia, or of clamp connections. The basidia without doubt are 2-spored, with also single-spored occurring together. The cap has a glabrous surface, and a radial section shows a palisade of short cells. Pigment was not apparent as granules, even from the blackish areas.
I can't find a match for this. It's a case of fungal forensics, but has such distinct features I thought it might be identifiable. Colours of photos are all a reasonable match with the specimen.

Cheers,
Steve
1 Macro 1.jpg
macro of the broken cap
2 Macro 2.jpg
macro - showing thick, veinred gills
3 Bas stack 600 (2).jpg
2 spored basidia, stacked image to get depth of focus
4 Basidia.jpg
2 and 1-spored basidia, some images stacked to get depth of focus
5 Cap cuticle.jpg
Cap cuticle from radial section, in water
6 spores 600 wat.jpg
Spores from gill edge squash

Steve
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Mon Oct 03, 2016 3:38 pm

That last post was identified as most likely Entoloma henricii - a rater rare Pinkgill, by Noordeloos on the BMS Facebook Group. Showing that even with just a broken cap, the microscopy can enough to give an ID.
Steve

Steve
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Fri Nov 11, 2016 3:52 pm

Here is Entoloma caesiocinctum, with blackish spots on the gill edges. Confirmed by Chiel Noordeloos on BMS Face book site.
1 Macro 1.jpg
Macro images
2 Macro 2.jpg
Macro images showing black spotted gill edges
3 Spores x 600.jpg
Spores
4 Cap cuticle x 1000 (2).jpg
Cap cuticle
5 Cap cuticle x 1000.jpg
Cap cuticle

Steve
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Fri Nov 11, 2016 3:58 pm

Entoloma xanthochroum, a nice brown Pinkcap. Confirmed by Chiel Noordeloos on BMS Facebook.
B Macro.jpg
Macro images
A2 Spores oilscale.jpg
Spores
A3 Gill edge.jpg
Gill edge
A4 Gill edge 600 .jpg
Gill edge
A6 cap cut oil.jpg
Cap cuticle

Steve
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Wed Mar 08, 2017 11:42 am

This blackish Entoloma was solitary in mossy grass, peaty pine woodland, acid gritstone. We took it to be Entoloma vernum, but microscopy of the spores showed it was anything but - smallish spores very rounded, no cheilocystidia and very strong mealy smell are more like descriptions of E. ortonii. Chiel Noordeloos (on BMS Facebook) considered it too chunky for E. ortonii and suggested E. sericeum as a possibility (a dark variety is listed in Funga Nordica), but there is definitely intracellular pigment in the cap cuticle hyphae. And on drying there was little colour change - nothing of the silvery-copper silkiness of E, sericeum.
Another difficult Entoloma, one which shows that you cannot do without a microscope, and one which shows you can't always put a name to a find. It may be an undescribed species - who knows?
Attachments
1 Entoloma field.jpg
Field photo
2 Entoloma .jpg
Field photo
3 Entoloma .JPG
Studio photo with scale in mm
4 Entoloma x1000 .jpg
Spores x 1000
5 Entoloma x200 gill edge.jpg
Gill edge in water x 200
6 Cap cut VS  x 1000.jpg
Cap cuticle in water x 1000

mollisia
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by mollisia » Wed Mar 08, 2017 12:47 pm

Hello,

I think with these spores it must belong into the group of Entoloma vinaceum - turbidum - pseudoturbidum.
I have no literature at hand, but there are only a few species with these small, roundish, weakly-angled spores, may be 4 or 5 - should be not too difficult in that case, but the farinaceous smell is somewhat irritating for E. turbidum (what would have been my first guess ...).

best regards,
Andreas

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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by roy betts » Mon Apr 09, 2018 12:56 pm

Steve wrote:
Mon Oct 03, 2016 3:38 pm
That last post was identified as most likely Entoloma henricii - a rater rare Pinkgill, by Noordeloos on the BMS Facebook Group. Showing that even with just a broken cap, the microscopy can enough to give an ID.
Steve
The description & this identification of the collection that we made at Longshaw Estate in Sept. 2016, prompted me to check out a similar collection that I made on 4/9/15 in local 'waxcap' grassland. I had concluded that this was E. transvenosum as the spores size fitted well as did the veined sides of the gills (athough this sp. is found under trees in woods and parks). But I hadn't checked the cuticle nor the basidia to see if they were 4-spored (the majority of Entoloma's are!). Fortunately I still had the voucher and I managed to locate five basidia all of which appeared to be 2-spored: so I conclude my collection is indeed henricii. The cuticle also seemed to be a palisade rather that a cutis although I was stretching my ability at examining dried material here!
I also made a similar collection at Tyntesfield on 23/8/10 in grassland which I also ID as transvenosum: again I feel this was probably henricii. Unfortunately I can't check the basidia and cuticle of this as the dried specimen has already been sent to Kew. So why did I not pick up on henricii? To begin with, transvenosum is in the Section with the 'tricholoma' types whereas henricii is in Section Trichopilus (types with fibrillose/tomentose/scally caps). Noordeloos' original description (FE5) states the cap is indeed "velvety-pruinose" but an amended description by him (FE5a) does not mention this feature.

Steve
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Sun Apr 15, 2018 6:51 pm

Excellent finds Roy!
It was certainly one of the finds of the weekend at Longshaw.
It looks like there will be a Club and Coral Workshop there this year to complete the CHEG profile.
Steve

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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by mollisia » Sun Apr 15, 2018 7:09 pm

roy betts wrote:
Mon Apr 09, 2018 12:56 pm
[...] whereas henricii is in Section Trichopilus (types with fibrillose/tomentose/scally caps). Noordeloos' original description (FE5) states the cap is indeed "velvety-pruinose" but an amended description by him (FE5a) does not mention this feature.
Hello,

this I don't understand. E. henricii is one of only two or three species in Entoloma which have the unique feature of a hymeniform cuticule. So they are neither fibrillose nor tomentose or scally. They are just smooth and a bit pruinose. E. henricii ressembles in that respet a Dermoloma species.
I have found that species two time in waxcap grassland now, and I have the feeling that the species is increasing for what reasons ever.

best regards,
Andreas

roy betts
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by roy betts » Mon Apr 23, 2018 2:10 pm

Thanks for those useful comments Andreas.
I've just been doing some long overdue 'filing' of my fungi images and found these that I took of E. henricii on 4/9/15 (hope they load OK).
Attachments
Entoloma henrici - 2015 September 012.JPG
Entoloma henricii
Entoloma henrici - 2015 September 013.JPG
Entoloma henricii

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