Entoloma - biting the bullet

Steve
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Sun May 08, 2016 5:11 pm

Entoloma papillatum....continued.
The brownish gills (on the field photo) are said to be a good feature of this species.
Steve
13 oil.jpg
Spores x 1000, in water
Field 3.jpg
Field photo showing brownish gills
Field2.jpg
Field photo showing small papilla

Steve
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Tue May 10, 2016 2:28 pm

Entoloma exile was named on the spot by a Longshw grassland specialist, but I wanted to check it under the scope. It was quite tiny, just 1.7 cm daimeter cap, very striate all the way to the dark umbo. The stem had olive tinges. However, the fungus was well past its prime and seething with bacteria under the microscope. I was able to check some spores, which were “oblong” 9-12 x 6-7.5 (for me, with their strikingly irregular angular outline, Entoloma spores are very hard to measure accurately).
The rather slimy gills had a decurrent tooth, and were quite distant (about 23 in number). What looked very like long brown cystidia were noted, roughly 200 x 15 um.
All in all there was probably just enough left of the toadstool to put a name to it.
Steve
1 Macro.jpg
Entoloma exile? Macro images
2 Spores x 600 in water.jpg
Entoloma exile? spores in water x 600
3 Spores x 600 in water 2.jpg
Entoloma exile? spores in water x 600
4 Gill squash in Congo Red x400.jpg
Entoloma exile? Gill edge with long brown cystidia-like elements

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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Tue May 10, 2016 3:02 pm

Entoloma aprile perhaps?
This striking Entoloma was found on 9th April 2014, in grassland not so far away fro hawthorn, but not so near either! The notes to the record read “Spores good match for E.clypeatum. Stem spirally striate. Pale "eye" to fibrillose cap (SC). Possible E. aprile/clypeatum. Not E.clypeatum (Andreas Gmeinder and Andy Overall from WAB)”

My recent find of Entoloma clypeatum growing right next to raspberry on our allotment revealed some debate about the status of Entoloma clypeatum and Entoloma aprile. Are these spring Entolomas simply variants of the same species?

Unfortunately no herbarium specimen was kept, so we are stuck with the evidence we collected ie photos and some micrographs, and brief notes.
From the field photos it’s clear from the buttercup leaves that this is quite a large Pinkgill, several inches across the cap. It’s not so distinctly Tricholomatoid as typical Entoloma clypeatum, or so shiny on the cap. Some caps had a distinct “eye” showing a hygrophanous quality. The striate stem, rather spiralled, was very striking.
Spores were approx 10-11 x 7-8, and basidia about 45 x 12.
On balance we decided to tentatively name this Entolma aprile cf. It was found in April :) .
Steve
1 Field 1.jpg
Field photo
2 Field 2.jpg
Field photos
3 Spores x 600 in water.jpg
Spores in water x 600
4 Basidia x 600.jpg
Basidia x 600
5 Cap cuticle x 600 in Congo Red.jpg
Cap cuticle in Congo Red x 600

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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Tue May 10, 2016 7:01 pm

A nice shiny Pinkgill. But a heart-sinker :twisted: .
The thing which caught my eye with this Pinkgill was the beautiful shiny, silky dry cap. It was present in some numbers in small groups/clusters on a pasture which is very rich in Hygrocybe species, and has been untreated with chemicals (we assume) for at least 90 years or so since Longshaw was essentially bought by the citizens of Sheffield. That is, apart from the significant amounts of nitrogen deposited from the huge number of cars infesting the Peak District.
The toadstools had quite a pleasant smell (that’s all I recorded -smell is not a good diagnostic feature for a great many of us). The cap was ovoid to broadly umbonate, rufous on top, and paler to greyish at the edges, striate, and drying strikingly shiny. The brittle stem was somewhat bulbous, flattened, pale brown and whitened at the base, generally hollow, and with some longitudinal furrowing. All in all it was quite a chunky, Tricholomatoid toadstool, with a cap up to 3-4 cm and a stem up to 1 cm wide and 6 cm long. Apparently E. sericeum should have quite a slender stem.
The adnexed gills were medium spaced with intermediates.
Microscopically basidia seemed to be 1-4-spored, and no clamps were noted in the cap cuticle. I saw no cystidia – just the dreadful dull gill edge of a typical Entoloma. Pigment in the cap cuticle appeared to be just intracellular. The spores are a problem because they vary a lot from isodiametric to oblong: Entoloma spores are truly hopeless at times. A feature of Entoloma sericeum is isodiametric spores.
Normally I would just name any bright shiny Entoloma like this as Entoloma sericeum – the Silky Pinkgill. It's commonly reported at Longshaw. But I am uncomfortable with how variable the descriptions seem to be in my books – Noordeloos, Fungi of Switzerland etc. In fact I got nowhere with the key in Funga Nordica and couldn't find a good match in FOS. Perhaps Entoloma ameides is a better fit, it's described as being shiny, with a nice smell, and my "isodiametric" spores may be just oblong ones orientated on their ends.
But anyway, it is kind of silky :)
Steve
1 Field.JPG
Field photo
2 Field.jpg
Field photos showing shiny dry caps
3 Studio photos.jpg
Size (mm scale) and cross sections
4spores x 600 in water.jpg
Spores x 600 in water
5 Cap cuticle.jpg
Cap cuticle. This would have been better unstained to show the brown pigment better
6 Gill trama.jpg
Gill trama in Congo Red

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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by roy betts » Wed May 11, 2016 3:17 pm

Hello Steve - regarding your May posts (so far!):
6/5: definitely E. griseocyaneum which is quite common on my 'patch'.
8/5: I would call this E. prunuloides (again frequent on my patch) although we now have E. ochreoprunuloides to consider (know from Pembrokeshire).
8/5: yes, E. sericellum
8/5: I also find that it's not that easy telling papillatum from similar species (although if the gills are this brown it's a good character).
10/5: although in poor condition, I would go along with exile for this one (it all seems to fit)
10/5: pass! - I've not come across E. aprile.
10/5: I'm sure this is E. ameides. Your top image has the very distinctive two-tone cap that I have noted in some of my 14 collections (8 from my local patch over a 20 year period). The 'orange blossom' smell should be a giveaway (although it's not the only Entoloma with this smell :) ).

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Chris Yeates
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Chris Yeates » Thu May 12, 2016 10:11 am

roy betts wrote:Hello Steve - regarding your May posts (so far!):
6/5: definitely E. griseocyaneum which is quite common on my 'patch'.
8/5: I would call this E. prunuloides (again frequent on my patch) although we now have E. ochreoprunuloides to consider (know from Pembrokeshire).
8/5: yes, E. sericellum
8/5: I also find that it's not that easy telling papillatum from similar species (although if the gills are this brown it's a good character).
10/5: although in poor condition, I would go along with exile for this one (it all seems to fit)
10/5: pass! - I've not come across E. aprile.
10/5: I'm sure this is E. ameides. Your top image has the very distinctive two-tone cap that I have noted in some of my 14 collections (8 from my local patch over a 20 year period). The 'orange blossom' smell should be a giveaway (although it's not the only Entoloma with this smell :) ).
Cripes!
you two are pretty impressive - perhaps I need to dip my toe into these pink waters again. I have much of the literature - and been bamboozled on numerous occasions nevertheless - one wonders how many records based solely on Phillips in the past (with its understandably limited range of species) are suspect (and I include myself in that). However backed up by this kind of UK Fungi hands-on advice I may give these another go . . .
Chris
"You must know it's right, the spore is on the wind tonight"
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Tue Jun 21, 2016 3:11 pm

Hi Roy,
Many thanks for your much appreciated comments. I'm sorry to have taken so long to reply but I've been very unwell for 2 months.

A spring Entoloma at Longshaw was the only agaric found on a traverse of the main waxcap meadow two weeks ago. This meadow is acid pastureland which has been held by the National Trust, and its local predecessor, a Sheffield Association for the protection of local scenery, since 1927. As far as we know, it has never been treated with chemical fertiliser since then. But most of the year it is rather dismal, with little of interest apart from the small wooded areas.
This grassland Entoloma is typical of many dull brown Pinkgills, and I’m quite sure, impossible to identify from this single specimen.
However, I think it is the only Pinkgill we’ve found at Longshaw this spring.
The cap was 2.3 cm diameter, pale brown, very shiny and radially split and streaked. The hollow stem was 4cm x 3mm, paler brown, just slightly striate and lighter to the apex. The gills were very broad and notched, about two dozen in number, widely spaced.
Spores were heterodiametric and obtuse angled, about 10 x7 (how do you make sense of Entoloma spore measurements?). A typical basidium was 4-spored, about 20 x 7. No clamp connections were noted on a gill squash or in the cap cuticle. The hyphae of the cap cuticle were about 10 wide and to my eye contain intracellular pigment. In the image below I have two focus levels. But I find pigment like this almost impossible to be sure of as it is really beyond the resolving power of my scope, even under oil.

It’s not too hard to be an Entoloma expert, Chris: in the Valley of the Blind the one-eyed man is king :D
Cheers,
Steve
1 Studio.JPG
Cap
2 Studio.jpg
Studio images
3 Gill edge x200.jpg
Gill edge: dull, dull dull!
4 Spores x 1000.jpg
Spores x1000 in water
5 Basidia x1000.jpg
Basidia x1000 in Congo Red
6 Cap cuticle x1000.jpg
Cap cuticle x1000, at two focus levels

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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by adampembs » Sat Jul 02, 2016 9:01 am

Steve wrote:in the Valley of the Blind the one-eyed man is king :D
Great quote! Not heard it before. :D
Adam Pollard
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Steve
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Mon Jul 04, 2016 9:47 am

It's based on a story by by HG Wells, Adam: "The Country of the Blind" from which this saying was derived. http://www.online-literature.com/wellshg/3/
It is a good one :)
Steve

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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Tue Jul 26, 2016 2:28 pm

Rob Foster found this beautiful blue-stemmed, scaly-capped Entoloma on July 14 in sheep pasture at Longshaw. We found it twice in 2014 in September – but didn’t record it in 2015. The spores were up to almost 12 um long, they tended to agglutinate in water. We were reasonably confident of the ID.
Steve
1 Field collection.JPG
Rob's collection
2 Field collection.JPG
Rob's collection
3 Dimensions.JPG
Dimensions - scale is in mm
4 Gills.JPG
Pink gills!
5 Spores deposited on cap.JPG
Spores have been dropped by a taller toadstool onto the cap of a shorter one.
6 Spores x1000.jpg
Spores in water - up to almost 12 um long

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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Fri Aug 19, 2016 12:20 pm

Hi,
This is one we found earlier on in our survey of the Longshaw Estate in the Peak District on 17/9/14. The remarkable thing about it was that it was on a Hairy Wood Ant nest. Longshaw has innumerable nests of this kind, and the ants get all over you when you are surveying in autumn – into your rucksack, and even crawling over your camera as you shoot. However, they usually don’t bite too much. It was interesting that they hadn’t attacked the fungus, and presumably its mycelium was growing well enough. The ants were dormant on this day. We’ve found a number of toadstools on the ant hills, including Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca (False Chanterelle), Collybia fusipes (Spindleshank) and Mycena, as well as the ubiquitous Rhopographis filicinis (Bracken Map).
A large troop of what I identified as Inocybe petiginosa were close by, but this was different. The spores were almost globular, with 5 very rounded angles, 8-18 x 7-8. Basidia were 4-spored, but apart from one hyphal-looking thread I found no gill edge cells of interest.
The toadstool itself was a humble LBM (Little Brown Mushroom), with a cap 2 cm wide, pale mousey grey. The stem was more or less equal, about 1.5 mm wide, with a silvery sheen and a white base. Gills were about 20 in number, plus intermediates.
Of course this is a case of single-mushroom-syndrome and you deserve the headache caused by attempting an ID. But it was an Entoloma, it was on an ant hill, and I haven’t identified it......yet :o
Steve
1 Hairy Wood Ant Ne.jpg
A Hairy Wood Ant nest with Bracken Map fungus (right)
2 Field.jpg
Field photo
3 Field.jpg
Field photo
4 Macro.jpg
Macro photos (scale in mm)
5 Spores x 600 in water.jpg
Spores in water x 600
Last edited by Steve on Mon Dec 19, 2016 3:23 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Mon Sep 12, 2016 3:57 pm

Here are some fungi forensics!
We spotted it during the Entoloma Workshop at Longshaw - a great success due to Roy Betts helping two dozen mycologists from the length and breadth of the country to put some names to Entoloma. We found some new species in the list of 20 or so we named.

This is one Roy and I were looking at in what we were informed was a Porpoloma zone, where we all froze at the command of a local waxcap buff! Do not move! Guiltily we held the trampled cap of a brownish mushroom in our hands. It looked a little like Pluteus umbrosus with grey-brown and blackish brown cap colours. The stem we never saw, as we hastily retreated from the zone. This made it rather difficult to use any keys, based on cap and stem colour. However, the very brittle gills are quite astonishing - very thick, smooth-edged, and heavily veined and ridged - rather like Mycena galericulata. They were too thick to mount for microscopy - so I made a squash of the edge. It is surely an Entoloma, with almost isodiametric spores. There was no sign of cheilocystidia, or of clamp connections. The basidia without doubt are 2-spored, with also single-spored occurring together. The cap has a glabrous surface, and a radial section shows a palisade of short cells. Pigment was not apparent as granules, even from the blackish areas.
I can't find a match for this. It's a case of fungal forensics, but has such distinct features I thought it might be identifiable. Colours of photos are all a reasonable match with the specimen.

Cheers,
Steve
1 Macro 1.jpg
macro of the broken cap
2 Macro 2.jpg
macro - showing thick, veinred gills
3 Bas stack 600 (2).jpg
2 spored basidia, stacked image to get depth of focus
4 Basidia.jpg
2 and 1-spored basidia, some images stacked to get depth of focus
5 Cap cuticle.jpg
Cap cuticle from radial section, in water
6 spores 600 wat.jpg
Spores from gill edge squash

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