Entoloma - biting the bullet

Steve
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Fri Feb 12, 2016 9:57 pm

Here is a spring Entoloma. We were hunting for spring Entolomas on Thursday - but may be a tad early. Last year we found what we eventually decided must be "Entoloma vernum" - though it didn't fit happily in all details with various descriptions of this species. It's generally depicted as a very dark Entoloma, which appears in spring. We found this one in wet, undisturbed mixed woodland on acid gritstone, Longshaw, Peak District. The gill edge was uninteresting.
Steve
1 Field pictures - Copy.jpg
Field photos
2 Macro photos1 - Copy.jpg
Macro photos
3 Macro photos 2 - Copy.jpg
Macro photos
4 Spores - Copy.jpg
Spores
6 Cap cuticle in water 1 - Copy.jpg
Cap cuticle in water
7 Cap cuticle in water 2 - Copy.jpg
Cap cuticle in water
Last edited by Steve on Fri May 06, 2016 8:58 pm, edited 1 time in total.

roy betts
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by roy betts » Fri Apr 01, 2016 1:47 pm

Re Spring Entolomas:
Images of Entoloma vernum do seem very variable, but I think you have to rely on Noordeloos (FE5/5a) when it comes to descriptions of this Genus.
The spores of your collection seem rather small and 'iso-' to be E. vernum. We have collected a species regularly in Feb. - April growing in old pasture/parkland which we have named vernum (see images taken this week). Spores were up to 11.4 x 8.3µ and there are narrow caulocystidia at the apex of the stipe. NB: images of caulo. taken with a Vivitar compact hand held on the microscope eyepiece!
Another Entoloma occurs locally but it's rather more a winter than a spring species (occurring Dec. - March): Entoloma hirtipes. It grows amongst herb rich grassland/scrub on limestone. It doesn't appear every year (these images were taken in 2014). It's fairly tall with cheilocystidia and large spores (to 14µ).
Attachments
2016 March - Entoloma 01a.JPG
Entoloma vernum
2016 March - E. vernum 001a.JPG
E. vernum caulocystidia
2016 March - E. vernum 004a.JPG
E. vernum caulocystidia
2014 Entoloma 003a.JPG
Entoloma hirtipes
2014 Entoloma 006a.JPG
Entoloma hirtipes

roy betts
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by roy betts » Sat Apr 02, 2016 9:50 am

Steve, looking at your collection of E. vernum, I wondered if it might be in Subgenus Entoloma rather than Subgenus Nolanea: specifically Section Tufosa, given it seems to posess more or less iso-diametric spores probably of less than 8µ. Specifically, I was thinking of turbidum or pseudoturbidum. Noordeloos, however, does not recognise them as being Spring fruiting. The only record of pseudoturbidum on FRDBI seems to be my ident. of a collection on 2nd April 2010! (3 images of which I attach courtesy of John Bailey the collector).
Attachments
Entoloma cf. turbidum JB2.JPG
Entoloma pseudoturbidum
Entoloma cf. turbidum JB3.JPG
Entoloma pseudoturbidum
Entoloma cf. turbidum JB4.JPG
Entoloma pseudoturbidum

Steve
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Mon Apr 04, 2016 9:07 pm

Hi Roy,
That's a very interesting suggestion!
It would be a new addition for the Longshaw Entolomas.
I have herbarium specimens for this find, so it can be looked at again - when family affairs permit.
By the way, here is a list of all the Entoloma species recorded for Longshaw, mostly by a single recorder - we have yet to validate a good few of these:
Entoloma ameides
Entoloma asprellum
Entoloma bloxamii
Entoloma caeruleoflocculosum
Entoloma caesiocinctum
Entoloma cetratum
Entoloma cf. juncinum
Entoloma chalybaeum
Entoloma chalybaeum var lazulinum
Entoloma clandestinum
Entoloma conferendum
Entoloma corvinum
Entoloma cyaneoviridescens
Entoloma difforme
Entoloma exile
Entoloma griseocyanaeum
Entoloma hebes
Entoloma hirtipes
Entoloma incanum
Entoloma infula var infula
Entoloma inutile
Entoloma lampropus
Entoloma lividocyanulum
Entoloma longistriatum var longistriatum
Entoloma longistriatum var. sarcitulum
Entoloma ortonii
Entoloma papillatum
Entoloma plebejum
Entoloma poliopus var poliopus
Entoloma porphyrophaeum
Entoloma prunuloides
Entoloma querquedula
Entoloma rhodopolium
Entoloma rhombisporum var. rhombisporum
Entoloma sarcitulum var sarcitulum
Entoloma sericellum
Entoloma sericeum
Entoloma serrulatum
Entoloma sodale
Entoloma turci
Entoloma undatum
Entoloma vernum (sensu latto)

Best regards, and thanks for your interest,
Steve

Steve
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Sat Apr 16, 2016 1:40 pm

Hi,
My next “easy” :lol: Pinkgill from Longshaw is the Indigo Pinkgill, Entoloma chalybaeum. It’s indigo blue, almost blackish, and covered in fibrils. And the gills don’t have coloured edges. However, there is a variety with a striate cap (var. lazulinum). I identified this one on macro features, but micrographed some features – spores, gill edge and cap cuticle – just in case. (I should have mounted the cap cuticle in water, rather than Congo Red, so the pigment is more easily seen). Plus I kept a herbarium specimen.
Steve
1a Macro.jpg
Field photo
1b Macro.jpg
Field and macro photos
3 Micro.jpg
Microscopy of gill edge, spores and cap cuticle (in Congo Red)

Steve
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Wed Apr 20, 2016 7:12 pm

Entoloma clypeatum

My wife spotted a colony of dark toadstools on an autumn raspberry bed on our allotment – I had been looking for fungi but walked straight past. They were dingy grey-brown, and rather dirty. It took 3 days to get a meagre spore print typical of Entoloma. Using Fungi of Switzerland and Noordeloos (Fungi Europaea 2004) I keyed it out as Entoloma clypeatum var. clypaeatum. The big reason for this was that it is a spring Entoloma growing with Rubus, which is in the rose family. It’s also chunky and tricholomatoid and has spores which look OK. It generally fits the description by Nordeloos: “...rather dark brown, grey brown or sepia. Stipe white to greyish, fibrillose but not fibrous. Basidia clamped.”. It also has rather short gill tramal cells.
However, Noordeloos warns us that for this section of Entoloma “species limits are not always easy and lead often to confusion, particularly with regard to E. clypeatum vs. E. aprile”. Features which are more like those set down for E. aprile are the hollow stipe, and the darl blue-green reaction to guaiac (very slow - overnight). However, Nordeloos does not rate the Guiac reaction as he sees it as varaiable and of little use.
Entoloma aprile is “frequently interpreted as a slender form of E. clypeatum” which tends to be found near Ulmus – a tree species I have not seen on our allotments. Our specimens certainly lacked the translucent striate margin of E. aprile, but they are rather old and dry.
And to complicate things, I am certain some of the basidia were 2-spored :?
Steve
1 Field.jpg
Field photos
2 Studio.jpg
Studio photos. Below shows guiac reaction
3 Spores and basidia.jpg
Spores in water washed from gills, stacked image of basidia
4 Basidia.jpg
Clamped basidia (mostly) in Congo Red
5 Clamps in cap cuticle.jpg
Cap cuticle with easily-found clamps. In Congo Red
6 Gill trama.jpg
Gill trama with short cells. In Congo Red

Steve
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Fri May 06, 2016 8:28 pm

The next Pinkgill we identified at Longshaw was Entoloma griseocyaneum.
I struggled with this one on field character ID as there are a lot of steely blue stemmed Entolomas.
Most of our grassland fungi were identified by our grassland specialist Rob Foster, who gave this detailed description:
"It was in heathy acid grassland at the side of the path.
Relatively sturdy Entoloma cap 45mm diam, stem 50 mm diam 5mm.Cap brown, scaley/ squamulous, fibrilose/cracking radially, stem violet/slate grey fibrilose (a little flocose at top and base).Microscopy - gills fertile edge, not coloured, no cheilocystidia. Mostly spores elongate irregular hexagons typically @13x9 micron. No clamps seen.
It keys in both Vesterholt and Noordeloos to Entoloma anatinum provided you regard the cap as dark rather than pale brown and the photo in Vesterholt is quiite similar to the home photos I took showing the radial cracking of the pileus. However, there are other species in the group Anatinum, notably Entoloma griseocyaneum, in which the stem is less blue, the cap less brown, and the fruit bodies more sturdy, the photos of this in Noordeloos are quite similar to the field photos I took showing the scaly, convex caps particularly of the young fruit body. Microscopically both species are very similar, however the spores illustrated in Noordeloos are closer for E. griseocyaneum. Both species occur in grass and moss often in poor acid soils in grassland. I wonder if these are genuinely separate species. Both are considered rare in Europe,though E. griseocyaneum apparently can be rather frequently found on poorly managed grasslands, so this is probably the most probable".
On WAB this one was considered typical of Entoloma griseocyaneum by Andreas Gminder.
Steve
1  Entoloma griseocyaneum.JPG
Entoloma griseocyaneum
2 Entoloma griseocyaneum.jpg
Entoloma griseocyaneum
3 Entoloma griseocyaneum.jpg
Entoloma griseocyaneum - spores

Steve
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Sun May 08, 2016 12:22 pm

The Mealy Pinkgill, Entoloma prunuloides.
Another “easy” Entoloma which we identified (via Rob Foster, our grassland specialist), was this one which foxed me until I poked my mirror under and saw the bright pink gills. Unfortunately 2 of the 5 records for Mealy Waxcap we got at Longshaw were bang on the route of a new bridle/cycleway, together with Pink Waxcaps and others. Another was on the Duke’s Drive, an old sheep-grazed pathway now more of a wide trackway, and with its verges threatened by conversion to a newly designated bridle/cycle route. Altogether a fantastic fungi site which we’ll be keeping an eye on. We recorded this species from field characters as it’s a speciality of Longshaw-type grasslands (I was told) and is unlikely to be one of the other big, Tricholoma-shaped whitish Pinkgills. However, I took a specimen for the herbarium just in case I have to do any microscopy in the future...
Steve
1.JPG
Entoloma prunuloides - Field photo
2.JPG
Entoloma prunuloides - Field photo
3.JPG
Entoloma prunuloides - with scale
4.JPG
Entoloma prunuloides - section

Steve
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Sun May 08, 2016 12:53 pm

Another "easy" one which we identified in the field at Longshaw was Entoloma sericellum - the Cream Pinkgill. Unusual white Pinkgill with pink gills - in grass - that was about it for ID. But I checked the spores quickly anyway.
Steve
1 Field.JPG
Entoloma sericellum - field photo
2 Field.jpg
Entoloma sericellum - field photo
3 Studio.jpg
Entoloma sericellum - studio photo
4 Studio.jpg
Entoloma sericellum - studio photo
5 Spore print.jpg
Entoloma sericellum - spore print
6 Spores.jpg
Entoloma sericellum - spores in water

Steve
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Re: Entoloma - biting the bullet

Post by Steve » Sun May 08, 2016 1:04 pm

Papillate Pinkgill - Entoloma papillatum.

This Entoloma papillatum was very confidently identified in the field at Longshaw by a local grassland fungi specialist. Besides the (small) papilla on the cap, the most important diagnostic feature for him was the gills. These are brownish, even at an early stage. I personally find these papillate Entolomas rather difficult.
1. - Copy.jpg
Entoloma papillatum
2. - Copy.jpg
Entoloma papillatum

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