Just an observation on fungi

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NellyDee
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Just an observation on fungi

Post by NellyDee » Wed Nov 04, 2015 1:21 pm

This season it seems to me that the fungi has moved location - de-bunked from the saturated land. In my woodland areas going down to the lower ground there has been barely any fungi, just a few Boletus satanas, only about 6 or seven Cantharelles and a few russula, whos caps had been eaten off, so no idea which. There have been none of the usual variety of Boletus, Lactarius, tricholomas or Russula. However the lawn area (usually free of fungi) seems to have gone mad with Cortinarus and Hygrocybe (3 types), any more and you wont see the lawn at all. Has anyone else had less fungi than usual, and what is there is late in the season I think.
appologies for naming - trying to put species name father than common :roll:
20151104_22.JPG

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Re: Just an observation on fungi

Post by Leif » Wed Nov 04, 2015 3:49 pm

We had a dry and warm patch in early and mid autumn, and now although the rains have come, that dry patch seems to have worked against most fungi.

My experience, is that Lactarius, Russula etc tend to be early and mid season fungi. This may be because they are dependent on the host tree, or because they are averse to cold and frost. The fact that we are not getting frost down here, in fact it is quite warm, and yet none of these fungi are popping up, suggests to me that it is the trees metabolism that is the key. Down here the deciduous trees and shrubs are dropping leaves and entering dormancy, or about to. I'm not seeing many of the decomposers either. The little rubber jobs, such as Clitocybe are not exactly having a party.

A lot of Hygrocybe and other grassland spcies are about, not surprising really as they are often late season fungi anyway. In fact it is currently rather good for these species. I found H calyptriformis in the local church yard, which was a nice surprise. It's not particularly rare but I don't see it often.

I've certainly noticed that some areas can be fairly productive in drier times when most places are barren. Presumably the soil, sub-soil and bed rock are the explanation, being such as to hold on to more moisture, or perhaps surrounding land tends to drain into those areas.

It would be interesting to see a plot of numbers for a given mycorrhizal species, against month over 10 years say, and compare that plot alongside rain fall and temperature measurements. But I'm not sure controlled measurements have been carried out.

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adampembs
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Re: Just an observation on fungi

Post by adampembs » Wed Nov 04, 2015 4:49 pm

I know many fungi don't fruit every year. Whether this is due to environmental factors, or, like acorns & Beech nuts, they save their energy for a big display every few years. It might therefore be subjective. We see different species in our favorite spots each year, and this might be the "glut effect" rather than environmental. This year, I've seen more Cortinarius and Inocybes than last year, but I tend to go to the same 4-5 locations a lot. I have a hypothesis that mycorrhizal fungi fruit early, before the leaf drop, to improve the chances of the wind dispersing their spores, not so easy if buried in leaves.

Overall, around here, it has been a late start for grassland fungi like waxcaps and Entolomas, we had a cold dry summer, although there were 100s of parasols in one spot I go to. Woodland fungi have not been noticeably different in quantity or scope.
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Leif
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Re: Just an observation on fungi

Post by Leif » Wed Nov 04, 2015 4:58 pm

Good point about 'mast years'. I have seen years where a given fungal species was plentiful, then almost absent in subsequent years. One year Entoloma sinuatum was abundant, in another year earth tongues were plentiful, and not just at one site, but over several counties.

I've also seen more Cortinarius and Inocybe than other species this year, only anecdotal, and I'm not convinced they are more abundant than usual, rather other species are scarce, so they are more noticeable. In fact the larger Cortinarius have been scarce apart from C violaceous which has popped up in huge numbers.

Interesting point about leaf drop and the timing of fungal fruiting.

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Re: Just an observation on fungi

Post by Chris Yeates » Wed Nov 04, 2015 6:52 pm

Hi Nelly
that image (if it is of the same fungus you posted as an ID request recently) is almost certainly of one of the honey fungus complex (as I suggested at the time). In the 20 years I have lived in my current home it has appeared just once - no evidence of tree or shrub damage, clearly living saprophytically. Similarly Stropharia pseudocyanea has appeared just once:
Strpse01.jpg
Stropharia pseudocyanea
Strpse03.jpg
Stropharia pseudocyanea
The same half dozen or so Hygrocybe species appear every year unless drought and/or frost have made conditions unsuitable for an fungi to fruit.

Because (as any fule kno ;) ) we are only seeing the fruiting stage of the fungus, it raises the question are they fruiting because conditions are good or because they are becoming unsuitable and the fungus needs to spread via its spores? Many fungi will appear on branches, leaves etc. quite soon after they have been shed (think Diatrype disciformis). This is because they have been living endophytically for a period of months to many years, not doing any harm to the plant, just waiting for the signal that the substrate is no longer attached https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endophyte. They are quite patient entities . . . .
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Chris
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NellyDee
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Re: Just an observation on fungi

Post by NellyDee » Thu Nov 05, 2015 10:13 am

Chris Yeates wrote:Hi Nelly
that image (if it is of the same fungus you posted as an ID request recently) is almost certainly of one of the honey fungus complex (as I suggested at the time). Chris
Yes Chris it is the same one posted for ID. I put Cortinarius by mistake :roll:

Also In the last few days great swathes of Armillaria mellea have appeared at the rear of the property, down a slope where a large area of ground had to be removed to avoid land slip. I know it is soil-borne, but am surprised at it's sudden appearance here - way distance from it's original site and basically on bare land at the moment and quite a distance from the trees. As a bye the bye I did post ages ago if 'this fungi was doing any harm' when it appear on trees that had fallen in the gales down in the ravine area.

I have found all the posted replies here really interesting :D thanks

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Re: Just an observation on fungi

Post by adampembs » Thu Nov 05, 2015 11:04 am

I've often seen honey fungus growing on roots, in some cases exposed roots, in others under soil and grass. Given the potential size of the mycelium and spread of tree roots, it could easily be growing 20-30 metres from the tree trunk. I've read about how mycorrhizal fungi can protect a tree's roots from other fungi; does this include Armillaria? If so, one can imagine a battle amongst the roots between the fungi and the tree's own defences. If trees weren't able to resist the honey fungus, there would be no veteran trees in those forests where it exists. Given that some of the honey fungi and the trees can live to 1000+ years, it could make the 100 years war seem like a flash in time.
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Re: Just an observation on fungi

Post by adampembs » Thu Nov 05, 2015 11:22 am

This may be of interest
Plants Resistant or Susceptible to Armillaria mellea (American)

This one is more relevant to us as it was produced for the Guernsey government. Oddly, it considers Fagus sylvatica resistant while the American report considers it vulnerable.
http://www.gov.gg/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=4797&p=0
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NellyDee
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Re: Just an observation on fungi

Post by NellyDee » Sun Nov 08, 2015 1:12 pm

adampembs wrote:This one is more relevant to us as it was produced for the Guernsey government. Oddly, it considers Fagus sylvatica resistant while the American report considers it vulnerable.
http://www.gov.gg/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=4797&p=0
I found your second Guernsey link really interesting and have saved the link for further reading, especially symptoms of white fan-shaped fungal or a ‘felty’ growth of mycelium. Might be back when I can get out to take photos to see if it ismycelium. A few years ago (WAB) I posted a photo of one of the Sorbus aucuparia , which lost a large oblong square of it's bark, which was white underneath. Well this tree has continued to stay upright, but is now almost completely white barked. Having read the Guernsey link, I think this has spread along a run of Salix Phylicifolia, which have also seemly gone white barked and is heading for my lovely old Taxus baccata. Unfortunately I cannot get near any of these as they are on a raised run of land that is now completely surrounded by water and has been since February - too much rain!

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